Lots of things have happend since then. Bikes might still look the same, but lots of small things have changed including pedals, chains, etc. Those inventions mean that we can rider both faster and safer than we did before (just think about how dangerous penny-farthings were compared with modern bikes with proper breaks and a lot lower saddles). On top of the many inventions, there have also been quite a few things going on in other areas like bike events and bike advocacy.
Infographic by: icebike